Keywords applicable to this article: statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics,
statistical data analysis, SPSS, LISREL, statistical package for social sciences, quantitative
research, triangulation research, mixed methodology, hypotheses testing, data presentation, data
analysis, phenomenology, Likert scale, Grounded Theory
By: Sourabh Kishore, Chief Consulting Officer
Mobile Friendly Page
Statistical Analysis Services for Research Projects employing
SPSS and Microsoft Excel Applications
Copyright 2010 EPROINDIA. All Rights Reserved
Statistical Analysis is an integral part of Quantitative Research studies in which all the inputs, indicators and measures are numbers that can be
represented in absolute form or in the form of metric units. Statistical techniques can be employed in any form of research that deals with numbers -
scientific research, social research, management research, technical research, psychological research, philosophical research, etc. Fundamentally,
Statistical Analytics comprises of two types of techniques - Descriptive Statistical Analytics and Inferential Statistical Analytics. The Descriptive
Statistical Analytics are carried out within the Research Sample that has been collected by the researcher to represent a large population. The attributes
that are analysed in Descriptive Statistical Analytics are: Central Tendency of the Data Set and Dispersion Tendency of the Data Set. The Central Tendency
is analysed using the parameters: Mean, Median, Mode and Skewness; and the Dispersion Tendency of the Data Set is analysed using the parameters:
Variance, Standard Deviation and Kurtosis. The Descriptive Statistical Analysis can result in excellent reflections from the data sets within the sample but
they cannot be readily applied to the entire population. There are two ways to apply the Descriptive Statistical results to the entire population:
(a) Grounded Theory Approach: The data is closely matched with past empirical results such that the extent of similarities and differences can be verified
and conclusions from the primary data analysis can be drawn. Such an approach is used in Triangulation Methodology which is the mix of Qualitative as
well as Quantitative Research methodologies. This approach of applying Descriptive Statistical data on the entire population is employed in scientific as
well as phenomenology research techniques and is normally employed in the Interpretive and Realism Philosophical approaches to conducting the
(b) Inferential Statistical Analytics: The Descriptive Statistical analytics can be applied to the entire population by carrying out additional statistical
analytics that are primarily employed to prove or reject Hypotheses. Some of the examples are: Chi-Square test, ANOVA, ACOVA, MANOVA, Multiple
Regression Tests, Student's T test, etc. The Inferential Statistical analytics are employed in pure quantitative research studies in which all the results are
based on statistical analytics only and human interpretations of the textual responses are not employed. These techniques is employed in Positivist's
approach of conducting the research.
In scientific research studies, the input data can be obtained from experiments conducted in laboratories or from simulation outcomes. In management and
social research studies, the input data can be obtained from the output of Likert Scale which is normally embedded as the part of Structured
Questionnaire. Likert Scale can be employed for Triangulation methodology as well as Quantitative methodology. Some qualitative researchers also prefer
to use Likert scale to enhance their interpretations of the results but they do not conduct statistical analysis of the outcomes.
We can help you to conduct both Descriptive and Inferential statistical analysis for your Research Project. The process followed is the following:
(a) You may send us your primary research data in whatever form you have collected - in hard copies (scanned), in MS Word tables or in MS Excel sheets.
(b) We will organise the data in a separate MS Excel sheet in such a way that it can be readily imported into SPSS or LISREL. If there are any errors in the
primary data, we will help you to rectify them.
(c) We will help you to import data in the SPSS package on your computer (you will need to have a licensed copy of SPSS or LISREL Academic version on
your computer) and will help you to generate the results in tables as well as graphs. Please note that LISREL is used for multivariate statistical modeling
for factor analysis, and structural equation modeling.
(d) We will conduct an analysis of the data and write the report which will be sent to you. If you want us to analyse the data with respect to the Literature
Review carried out by you, we can do so at additional costs.
The cost of our efforts will depend upon the sample size and the corresponding data volumes that needs to be organised in MS Excel and then imported
into SPSS on your computer for descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, and LISREL for multivariate statistical analysis.. The cost will also depend
upon whether you only want descriptive statistical analysis (mostly used in "Triangulation" or "Mixed" methodology) or want to conduct inferential
statistical analysis as well (mostly used in "Pure Quantitative" methodology, i.e., research studies that require proving or rejecting hypotheses). For
grounded theory approach (comparing the primary data and its statistical analytics with past empirical theories) and for writing up the entire report, the
charges shall be extra based on the number of words required by the customer. We can also evolve the conclusions and generalisations based on our
analysis and present to you our opinion in the write up. You may however like to confirm yourself if our opinion justifies your research aims and
objectives. We will take accountability of the accuracy of all analytics and the conclusions drawn but the final success will depend upon whether your
research aims and objectives have been met or not.
Dear Visitor, Please visit the page detailing SUBJECT AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION pertaining to our services to view the broader perspective of our
offerings for Dissertations and Thesis Projects. With Sincere Regards, Sourabh Kishore.
Electronic Publishing and Research Organisation India (EPROINDIA) - formerly the ePublishing and research division of ETCO India